Since the dawn of history, humankind’s experience of arrival and demise of two different forms of monarchy systems, it ranges from an absolute monarchy system to a constitutional monarchy system. The autonomy of a monarchy system, regardless it is an absolute system or constitutional system, it contributes to the class of nobility. The class of nobility does not earn its rank in society. It is a matter of luck by being born in a royal family. The royal family has unlimited access to resources. The royal family may engage in careless acts and costing state significant financial hardship. The system has a tax system to pay for the expenses. People are working and are paying taxes toward the national revenue. People would become agitated about having noble families who are living at their expense.
There are times that the head of state is developing domestic or foreign policies to move the nation toward modernity and progress. The head of the state’s vision for the country may not be aligned in what people want. Even some strategies may seem right, but people do not like what they see. Thus, it causes a division between the head of state and people.
The monarchy system has one power; it is about unifying divided nation under one nation. A country is composed of different ethnic groups, and these different ethnic groups are having their vision for their well-being. A monarchy system has the natural power to accept one ethnic image as an inspiration for the rest of the nation and allowing other ethnic groups to integrate their visions into different ethnic groups. It creates harmony in a country.
The republic system appeared at the time of the industrial revolution in the European continent. The feudal lords could no longer hide behind castle walls because the cannons brought the castle walls down. The feudal lords no longer found serfs to be useful and let the serfs live the land and take refugee in the cities who began to work in the factories for the duration of 16 or 18 hours a day, seven days a week without any form of protection.
The French Revolution of 1799 shifted the political system of the monarchy to a republic system. Napoleon Bonaparte had occupational mobility base on his merit and not because he came from a noble family. The religious organizations were not shakers and movers of a nation. Religious organizations focused on the task of life and death. It developed a system of checked and balanced to make sure power is not abused, but instead, it is used to empower a nation. The republic system has a flaw. The system allows opportunistic individuals to have power, and political actors make decisions that benefit them solely. The unity of the nation is less effective, and the system moves toward federalism. In the method of the republic, it is highly likely a country disintegrated among ethnic groups or political values.
The class system of nobility vanishes and the order of meritocracy emerge in society. Emile Durkheim’s external forces to shape a person’s behavior replaces with Max Weber’s philosophy that education would enable individuals to have occupational mobility.
In conclusion, a nation is at the peril of disintegration due to political actors. This integration is stemming from a wide range of issues, it could be a political actor is seeking self-glory, or there are issues at stake which cannot be resolved and causes a portion of the nation to declare itself an independent nation. The last factor is the power struggle in society. The class system creates a power struggle in society. In a monarchy system creates a class system based on family origin. The republic system has a merit system that allows each person to reach their potentiality through hard work and education. However, there is a flaw in this system. The ratio of the individuals who skip the cycle of poverty, it is deficient because of barriers in society made to keep others at the base, and others take the lion portion of the economic pie.